Participation of the Public in Central and Local Governance: Principles, Statistics and European Experiences for Ukraine

Keywords: public authorities, local self-government, civil society, civil society institutions, participatory governance, cooperation, participation


Issues of the effective participation and cooperation of the civil society in power bodies have been a central social problem of the globe in the latest times. Although theoretical issues of participatory governance have been well developed and widely implemented, e. g. in business sector, cooperation of Power and Community pose a serious problem in the world and Ukraine in particular. The effectiveness of cooperation between Power and the civil society is downgraded by the issue the current condition of both parties, the quality of their work and their mutual trust. Also, it needs to be born in mind that this problem is a part of the triangle Power – Society – Business, and that the external environment has significant impact in the conditions of globalization.

Given the Ukrainian context, it should be considered that the power system here was inherited from the Soviet Union. It is incompatible with the present-day realities, and its reform has been so far ineffective. The data from the State Statistics Service of Ukraine (SSSU) show the vast numbers of officials in local governance and central power bodies, picked up in industry-like administrative departments. The bulky apparatus of public governance being streamlined on the problem solution process in economic industries, social problems, not mentioning the ones of individual humans, can be looked at only before elections.  

On the other hand, according to SSSU, Ukraine has a network of rather diverse public organizations, but their total number is small. According to Eurostat, quantitative and qualitative parameters of the civil society in Ukraine lag far behind the European ones. A diversity of goals, weak consolidation of efforts, resources and methods for solving the most important problems are factors complicating the cooperation between Power and Community.

Theoretical and practical aspects of the problem related with cooperation of Power and the civil society have been elaborated in Europe since long. Advanced principles and various technologies for its solution have been proposed and implemented. The first typology of the public participation in form of “public participation staircase” was admittedly made by researcher Sh. R. Arnstein. She broke the staircase into the three levels: non-participation, symbolic participation, public power. To boost the effectiveness of collaborative action, the European community has elaborated the Code of recommended norms for the participation of the public in taking public decisions. In fact, this technology is the standard of cooperation between Power and Community in Europe.  

The need for reform of the system for cooperation of power bodies with the civil society in Ukraine by use the European experience of cooperation is substantiated. The issues of goals, principles, methods and phases of cooperation between the power and the society, their advantages and drawbacks are highlighted.


Download data is not yet available.


Semianovskyi, V. M. (2018). Partysypatyvne upravlinnia yak model upravlinnia terytorialnymy hromadamy [Participative Management as a model of management of territorial communities]. Statistika Ukrainy – Statіstісs оf Ukraine, 1, 47–51 [in Ukrainian].

Uriadovyi portal. Yedynyi veb-portal orhaniv vykonavchoi vlady Ukrainy [Government portal. Official website]. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Ofitsiinyi sait Derzhavnoi sluzhby statystyky Ukrainy [Official web-site of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine]. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Official web-site of Eurostat. Retrieved from

Pro derzhavnu sluzhbu: Zakon Ukrainy vid 10.12.2015 r. № 889-VIII, stanom na 01.01.2019 r. [On Civil Service. Law of Ukraine of December 10, 2015 № 889-VIII as of January 01, 2019]. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Kanavets, M. (2018). Suchasnyi stan i perspektyvy rozvytku hromadianskoho suspilstva v Ukraini ta vzaiemodii orhaniv derzhavnoi vlady z hromadskistiu [Current state and prospects of the civil society development in Ukraine and interactions of public authorities with the public]. Efektyvnist derzhavnoho upravlinnia – Effectiveness of public administration, 2 (55), 1, 153–168. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Pokaznyky Yedynoho derzhavnoho reiestru pidpryiemstv ta orhanizatsii Ukrainy (IeDRPOU). Kilkist yurydychnykh osib za orhanizatsiino-pravovymy formamy hospodariuvannia [Indicators of the Unified State Register of Enterprises and Organizations of Ukraine (EDRPOU). Number of legal entities for organizational and legal forms of management.]. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy: Baza danykh. Informatsiino-poshukova systema [Legislation of Ukraine Database]. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Arnstein, Sh. R. (1969). A Ladder of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35, 4, 216–224. Retrieved from

Mizhnarodna asotsiatsiia hromadskoi uchasti [International Association of Public Participation IAP2]. Retrieved from

Rowe, G., & Frewer, L. (2005). A typology of public engagement mechanisms. Science, Technology & Human Values, 30, 251–290. Retrieved from

Sustainable Development Goals. Knowledge Platform. United Nations. Retrieved from

Zaiava pro Kodeks nalezhnoi praktyky uchasti hromadskosti u protsesi pryiniattia rishen: pryiniata 21.10.2009 r. na 1068 zasidanni Zastupnykiv Ministriv. Rada Yevropy, Komitet Ministriv [Statement on the Code of Good Practice of Public Participation in Decision-making, adopted on October 21, 2009 at 1068th Deputy Ministers' Meeting. Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers]. wcd.Council Retrieved from https://wcd.Council [in Ukrainian].

Dodatkovyi protokol do Yevropeiskoi khartii mistsevoho samovriaduvannia pro pravo uchasti u spravakh mistsevoho orhanu vlady vid 16.11.2009 r.[Additional Protocol to the European Charter of Local Self-Government on the right to participate in the affairs of the local government of November 16, 2009]. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Systema vzaiemodii vlady ta hromady na osnovi yevropeiskykh standartiv. Portal Koordynatsiinoho komitetu hromadskykh rad Ukrainy [The system of power and community interaction based on European standards. Portal of the Coordinating Committee of Public Councils of Ukraine]. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Abstract views: 185
PDF Downloads: 64
How to Cite
SemianovskyiV. М. (2019). Participation of the Public in Central and Local Governance: Principles, Statistics and European Experiences for Ukraine. Statistics of Ukraine, 85(2), 21-30.