Unpaid Care Work in the Republic of Belarus: Structure Analysis and Methods of Macroeconomic Assessment
Achieving gender equality is important for sustainable socio-economic development of the country. The significance of this problem is also reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals, namely, achieve gender equality (Goal 5). While the Republic of Belarus pays great attention to solving gender problems, inequality in the labor market is persisting. In particular, gender differences in the distribution of paid and care-related work still exist. Therefore, it is important to study and identify the differences in the time budget of employed men and women in the Republic of Belarus, with assessing the unpaid household services and their recording in national accounts.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the time use structure in the Republic of Belarus, with determining the differences in the distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women and assessing the housework that is “invisible” for a market economy. The study is based on the methodological approaches of the System of National Accounts and the updated international standards on labor statistics. Data from time-use surveys and sample household surveys on employment issues are used as the information base of our study.
It is shown that the total daily working day of women lasts 68 minutes longer than the working day of men, which is explained by the fact that women spend twice longer time on housework than men. The unpaid work (services produced inside households) is valuated by the cost approach using the methods of full, specialized replacement and opportunity costs.
The estimated scopes of the household work “invisible” for a market economy range from 12.6% to 20.5% of Gross Domestic Products in 2018. Future studies should focus on the assessment of the women’s contribution in the national economy, with inclusion of their housework and the household output for own final consumption in the traditional macroeconomic indicators.
Agabekova, N. V., Novoselova, S. V (2007). Byudzhet vremeni naseleniya Respubliki Belarus: metodologiya provedeniya obsledovaniya i analiz rezultatov [The time budget of the population of the Republic of Belarus: survey methodology and analysis of results]. Statistika Ukrainy Statistics of Ukraine, 4, 74–80 [in Russian].
Zhenshchiny v sfere truda. Tendentsii 2016 g. [Women in the world of work. Trends 2016]. (2016). www.ilo.org Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/dgreports/dcomm/-publ/ documents/ publication/ wcms_457097.pdf [in Russian].
Zhenshchiny i muzhchiny Respubliki Belarus. 2016: stat. sb. [Women and men in the Republic of Belarus. 2016: Statistical Yearbook]. (2016). National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. Minsk [in Russian].
Kalabikhina, I. E., & Shaikenova, Zh. K. (2018). Otsenka transfertov vremeni vnutri domokhozyaystv [An estimation of household time transfers within households]. Demograficheskoye obozreniye – Demographic Review, Vol. 5, 4, 36–65 [in Russian].
Metodika po raschetu obyemov nenablyudayemoy ekonomiki: Postanovleniye Belstata ot 29.11.2017 g. № 140 [Methods for calculating the volume of non-observed economy. Resolution of Belstat of November 29, 2017]. www.belstat.gov.by. Retrieved from http://www.belstat.gov.by/metodologiya/metodiki-po-formirovaniyu-i-raschetu-statistichesk [in Russian].
Resolution I: Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization. (2013). 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians (2–11 October 2013). www.ilo.org. Retrieved from http:www.ilo.org/global/statistics-and-databases/meetings-and-events/international-conference-of-labour-statisticians/19/lang--en/index.htm [in English].
Rukovodstvo po podgotovke statisticheskikh dannykh ob ispolzovanii vremeni dlya otsenki oplachivayemogo i neoplachivayemogo truda [Guide to Producing Statistics on Time Use: measuring paid and unpaid work]. (2007). unstats.un.org. Retrieved from https://unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/SeriesF/SeriesF_93R.pdf [in Russian].
Rukovodstvo po stoimostnoy otsenke neoplachivayemoy trudovoy deyatelnosti po okazaniyu domashnikh uslug [Guide on Valuing Unpaid Household Service Work]. (2017). www.unece.org. Retrieved from https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/ publications/2018/
ECECESSTAT20173_ru.pdf [in Russian].
Sistema natsionalnykh schetov 2008. (2012). [System of National Accounts 2008]. unstats.un.org. Retrieved from https://unstats.un.org/unsd/ nationalaccount/docs/SNA2008Russian.pdf [in Russian].
Sotsialnoye polozheniye i uroven zhizni naseleniya Respubliki Belarus. 2005: stat. sb. [Social environment and living standards in the Republic of Belarus. 2005: Statistical Yearbook]. (2005). Ministry of statistics and analysis of the Republic of Belarus. Minsk [in Russian].
Tseli v oblasti ustoychivogo razvitiya [Sustainable Development Goals]. (2015). www.un.org. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/ru/sustainable-development-goals [in Russian].
Clark, C. (1958). The Economics of House-Work. Bulletin of the Oxford University Institute of Economics & Statistics, Vol. 20, 2, 205–211. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1468-0084.1958.mp20002004.x [in English].
Counting Women’s Work: Measuring the Gendered Economy in the Market and at Home. (2017). National Transfer Accounts Bulletin, 11. Retrieved from https://www.eastwestcenter.org/system/tdf/private/ntabulletin011.pdf?file [in English].
Donehower, G. (2014). Incorporating gender and time use into NTA: Estimating NTA and national time transfer accounts by sex. www.ntaccounts.org. Retrieved from http://www.ntaccounts.org/web/nta/show/GenderTime use [in English].
Goldschmidt-Clermont, L. (1982). Unpaid work in the Household: A review of economic valuation methods. Women, Work and Development, 1. Geneva: International Labour Office Retrieved from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/references_8c6c42c1-en.pdf [in English].
Abraham K. G., & Mackie Ch. (2005). National Research Council. Beyond the Market: Designing Nonmarket Accounts for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from https://www.doi.org/10.17226/11181 [in English].
Gilbert M., Staehle H., Woytinsky W. S., &Kuznets, S. (1944). National Product, War and Prewar: Some Comments on. Professor Kuznets’ Study and a Reply by Professor Kuznets. The Review of Economic Statistics, 26, 3, 126135 [in English].
Mitchell, W. C., Kingб W. L., Macaulayб F. R., & Knauthб O. W. (1921). Income in the United States: 1909–1919. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company. Retrieved from https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.35128002271136 [in English].
Pigou, A. C. (1920). The Economics of Welfare. London: Macmillan and Co., Limited, Retrieved from http://files.libertyfund.org/files/1410/Pigou_0316.pdf [in English].
Stiglitz, J., Sen A., & Fitoussi, J. (2009). Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/118025 [in English].
Walker, K. E. & William, G. H (1973). Time and its dollar value of household work. Family Economic Review, 60, 8–13 [in English].
Weinrobe, M. (1974). Household production and national production: an improvement of the record. The Review of Income and Wealth, 20, 1, 89–102. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1475-4991.1974.tb00910.x [in English].
Ob utverzhdenii Instruktsii po organizatsii i provedeniiu vyborochnogo obsledovaniia domashnikh khozyaystv v tseliakh izucheniia problem zaniatosti: Postanovlenie Natsionalnogo statisticheskogo komiteta Respubliki Belarus ot 15.03.2019 g. № 10 [On approval of the Instruction for the organization and conduct of a sample survey of households for studying the problems of population employment. Decree of the National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus of March 15, 2019 No. 10]. pravo.by. Retrieved from http://pravo.by/upload/docs/op/T21904229p_1554843600.pdf
Abstract views: 147 PDF Downloads: 71