Nobel Prize Level Scientific Discoveries of a Heir of Zaporizhian Cossacks

Keywords: alpha-decay, tunnel effect, Gamow – Teller transitions, Universe, the Big Bang, relict radiation (space microwave background), living material, entropy, triplet model of genetic code, progress of economy, Nobel Prize.


In this work, three fundamental discoveries of the Ukraine-born Prof. George A. Gamow are presented from a single scientific and methodological point of view. Each of them is truly worth of the Nobel Prize – the most prestigious recognition of achievements of a scientist.

We trace the emergence of G. Gamow as one of the most outstanding scientists of the twentieth century – encyclopaedist, theoretical physicist by heart, astrophysicist and biophysicist, talented and brilliant popularizer of science, whose works are readable in one go, as well as the author of unforgettable pranks and jokes.

  1. Gamow was a Fellow of the Danish Royal Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the International Astronomical Union, the American Physical Society, an honorary doctor of countless universities. Although his name is little known in Ukraine, the history of science would be incomplete without him.

From an early age G. Gamow has shown a great interest in scientific research, using a microscope to look for erythrocytes and a telescope to observe the Halley comet. He graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Leningrad State University, where he followed classes of Professor O. Friedman, founder of the evolutionary cosmology. He has undergone training at the University of Goettingen, the center of theoretical physics at the time, worked for Nobel Prize winners Professors E. Rutherford and N. Bohr. At the age of 28, G. Gamow, by the recommendation of academician V. Vernadskyi, became the member of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, the youngest member in the entire history of its existence.

Throughout his life, G. Gamow was interested in the fundamental scientific problems and made numerous world-class discoveries that are written by golden letters in the treasury of the human civilization. He has found explanation to the E. Rutherford’s experiments with alpha particles (tunnelling effect); introduced the empirical formula of Geiger – Nettoll, connecting the energy of alpha particles to the half-life of radioactive nuclei. G. Gamow is one of the pioneers of the liquid-drop model of a nucleus, and the application of nuclear physics to the evolution of stars. He proposed a fantastic hypothesis about the early universe, suggesting it being not only super dense but also very hot. He also built the Big Bang theory, which led to the existence of relic radiation (space microwave background) with the characteristic temperature of 5–7 degrees above the absolute zero, detected by methods of radio astronomy. He proposed a triplet model of the genetic code - the alphabet of life with three-letter words, experimentally proven by X-ray structural studies of DNA and empirically established rules of E. Chargaff. These discoveries have greatly contributed not only to the development of the modern science, but to the industrial and economic expansion of humanity.


Download data is not yet available.


Amusia, M., & Perlman, M. (2004).Tri ego otkrytiia byli dostoiny Nobelevskoi premii [Three his discoveries were Nobel Prize level]. Retrieved from history (in Russian).

Frenkel, B. Ya, Chernin, A. D. (2016). Georgii Gamow – gigant trekh nauk: ot alfa-raspada do Bolshogo vzryva [George Gamow is giant of three sciences: from alfa-decay to the Big Bang]. Moscow: URSS. Vyp. 68 (in Russian).

Motsnyi, F. V. (2019). Osnovy matematychnoi statystyky [Fundamentals of mathematical statistics]. Kyiv: DP ”Inform.-analit. ahenstvo” (in Ukrainian).

Motsnyi, F. V. (2010). Ekonomika, mizhnarodna kooperatsiia i velykyi adronnyi kolaider: ochikuvannia, mify, realnist [Economics, International Cooperation and Great Hadron Collider: expectations, myths and reality]. Naukovyi visnyk Natsionalnoi akademii statystyky, obliku ta audytu – Scientific Bulletin of the National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit, 2, 121–134 (in Ukrainian).

Gamow, G. (1994). Moia mirovaia liniia: neformalnaia biografiia [My World Line: An Informal Autobiography]. Moscow: Nauka. Retrieved from (in Russian).

Gamow, G. (1928). Zur Quantentheorie des Atomkernes. Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 51, 3–4, 204–212 (in German).

Chernin, A. D. (1994). Kak Gamow vychislil temperaturu reliktovogo izlucheniia, ili nemnogo ob iskusstve teoreticheskoi fiziki [How Gamow calculated the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature, or little about the art of theoretical physics]. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk – Physics-Uspekhi (Advances in Physical Sciences), Vol. 164, 8, 889–895 (in Russian).

Beta-raspad [Beta decay]. Retrieved from (in Russian).

Gamow, G. Expanding Universe and the Origin of Galaxies. Matematisk-fysiske Meddelelser. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. 27, No 10. P. 1–16. Retrieved from

Penzias, А. А., & Wilson, R. W. (1965). A Measurement of еxcess аntenna temperature at 4080 Mc/s. Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 142, 419–421 (in English).

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978 – Speed read: Tuning in to Big Bang’s Echo. Retrieved from

Smoot, G. (2007). Anisotropiia reliktovogo ilucheniia: otkrytie i nauchnoe znachenie [Anisotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation: discovery and scientific importance]. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk – Physics-Uspekhi (Advances in Physical Sciences), Vol. 177, 12, 1294–1317 (in Russian).

Mather, J. (2007). Ot bolshogo vzryva do Nobelevskoi premii i dalshe [From the Big Bang to Nobel Prize and further]. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk – Physics-Uspekhi (Advances in Physical Sciences), Vol. 177, 12, 1278–1293 (in Russian).

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006. (2006). Retrieved from

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013. (2013). Retrieved from

Peebles, P. J. E. (1983). Structura Vselennoi v bolshich masshtabach [The Structure of Universe in large scale].Moscow: Mir (in Russian).

Schrödinger, E. (2015). Chto takoe zhyzn s tochki zreniia physiki [What is Life from Physical point of view]. Moscow: Ramis. URL: (in Russian).

Molecular Basis of Inheritance. Translation. Retrieved from

Zaichko, N. V. Obmin nukleoproteiniv: budova, biologichne znachennia ta metabolism nukleotydiv [Nucleoprotein Exchange: structure, biological importance and nucleotide metabolism]. Retrieved from (in Ukrainian).

Nukleinovi kysloty [Nucleic acids]. Retrieved from (in Ukrainian).

Watson, J. (1969). Dvoinaia spiral [Double helix]. Moscow: Mir (in Russian).

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962. Retrieved from

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968. Retrieved from

50 vynakhodiv, yaki Ukraina podaruvala svitu [50 Ukrainian Inventions Bestowed by Ukraine to the World]. Retrieved from (in Ukrainian).

Abstract views: 105
PDF Downloads: 28
How to Cite
Motsnyi, F. V. (2020). Nobel Prize Level Scientific Discoveries of a Heir of Zaporizhian Cossacks. Statistics of Ukraine, 88(1), 131-138.