Mortality in Metropolises of Ukraine: Historical Parallels with the Study of Yu. O. Korchak-Chepurkivsky
The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative analysis (find historical parallels) of the situation with mortality causes in four cities of Ukraine in 1923–1929 and in our time, by comparing the mortality structure in 1926 and 2019, to identify structural changes and make assumptions regarding their determinants. Based on data from statistical tables of mortality in the four largest cities of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (Kyiv, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Odessa) for 1923–1929 and data from the State Statistics Service of Ukraine for 2019 on the distribution of deaths by death cause in the same cities and in Ukraine, the structural shares by main classes were calculated (according to the current classifications). Changes in the contribution of various causes of death to the mortality of the urban population are estimated. The overall progress (the advancement of medical science and practice, the improvement of living conditions (including sanitation and hygiene) and quality of life, the increased population’s awareness of health issues and access to medical care, etc.), immunization programs, the development and production of effective drugs have significantly reduced the mortality and transformed its structure.
It is shown that the list of the leading causes, especially their ranks, given in the research of Yu. O. Korchak-Chepurkivsky, differed significantly from the analogous list for modern metropolises of Ukraine. In contrast to the situation in the four largest Ukrainian cities in 2019, with the majority of deaths caused by diseases of the circulatory system (about 65%), almost the same total share (67.4%) of deaths in the above cities in 1926 was determined by five classes (infectious or communicable diseases, diseases of the respiratory and digestive organs, cardiovascular diseases, and diseases of the nervous system and sense organs). The largest share of deaths in the four largest cities of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic was found to be caused by infectious and parasitic diseases (over 27%). Given that part of the infectious pathology (the diseases of the digestive system and nervous system in the first place) was registered by the then nomenclature in other classes, their contribution to the totality of deaths can be assessed as more significant (at least by 10–15%).
The structural share of mortality from infectious and parasitic diseases in the four largest cities has decreased from 27% altogether to nearly 2%. There was a significant transformation in the spectrum of causes: while in 1926 high mortality was due to scarlet fever, whooping cough, typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever evolved to almost zero, in our time its significant part was caused by a new pathology, a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). At the same time, the significance of tuberculosis as a cause of death is a striking difference between the mortality pattern in Ukrainian cities and the situation in modern developed countries. The decreased structural shares of infectious, respiratory and digestive diseases (some of which are also of infectious etiology), along with the prevalence of pathologies occurring in the perinatal period, congenital malformations, deformities and chromosomal abnormalities, were the largest changes in the infant mortality structure.
2. The World’s Cities in 2018. Data Booklet. (2018). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. ST/ESA/ SER.A/417. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/urbanization/the_worlds_cities_in_2018_data_booklet.pdf
3. Rozpodil postiynoho naselennya Ukrayiny za stattyu ta vikom na 1 sichnia 2019 roku: stat. zb. [Distribution of the Resident Population of Ukraine by Sex and Age on January 1, 2019: Statistical Yearbook]. (2019). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Kyiv Retrieved from http://database.ukrcensus.gov.ua/PXWEB2007/ukr/publ_new1/2019/zb_rpnu2019.pdf [in Ukrainian].
4. Leksin, V. P., & Porfiriev, B. N. (2017) Megapolisy i fenomen megapolisnosti v Rossii [Megapolises and Megapolis-ness Phenomenon in Russia]. Region: ekonomika i sotsiologiya – Region: Economics & Sociology, 1 (93), 42–77 [in Russian].
5. Korchak-Chepurkivsky, Yu. O. (1930). Smertnist v 4-kh naibilshykh mistakh USRR u 1923–1929 rr. [Mortality in 4 Largest Cities of the USSR in 1923–1929]. Kyiv: VUAN [in Ukrainian].
6. Lyubinets, O., Hrzhybovskyy, J., & Semenjuk, O. (2015). Structure of causes of death rural working age population in Lviv region in Ukraine. Dni Medycyny Społecznej i Zdrowia Publicznego. Kongres medycyny i zdrowia wsi. Streszczenia: abstracts. Lublin (Poland), 24-26.05.2015. Lublin: Instytut Medycyny Wsi, S. 121 [in Ukrainian].
7. Gurov, O., & Dudnyk, V. (2021). Problema doslidzhennia vypadkiv samohubstv v Kharkivskii ahlomeratsii [The problem of suicide cases in the Kharkiv agglomeration]. National Health as Determinant of Sustainable Development of Society. N. Dubrovina, S. Filip (Eds.); School оf Economics and Management іn Public Administration in Bratislava (pp. 329–341). Retrieved from http://www.vsemvs.sk/portals/0/Subory/Mono_VSEMvsMED2021.pdf [in Ukrainian].
8. Kovtunenko, Yu. V., Shatskov, V. V., & Badihon, V. O. (2018). Analiz pryrodnoho ta mekhanichnoho rukhu naselennia Odeskoi oblasti [Analysis of Natural and Mechanical Motіon of the Odesa Region]. Ekonomika. Finansy. Pravo – Economics. Finanсes. Law, 2, 23–25. Retrieved from http://dspace.opu.ua/jspui/handle/123456789/7100 [in Ukrainian].
9. Grebnyak, N. P., Fedorchenko, R. A., & Schudro, S. A. (2017). Vplyv vykorystannia potuzhnostei vyrobnytstva na smertnist naselennia [Effects of the use of capacity of manufacture on mortality population]. Ekonomika i pravo okhorony zdorovia – Economy and legislation of health care, 1 (5), 44–49. Retrieved from http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/eprozd_2017_1_10 [in Ukrainian].
10. Korchak-Chepurkivsky, O. V. (Ed.). (1929). Povna mizhnarodnіa nomenklyatura і klyasyfikatsiіa khvorob ta prychyn smerty [Complete International nomenclature and classification of diseases and causes of death]. (2nd ed.). Kharkiv: Derzhtrest “Kharpolihraf”. Tretia drukarnia im. Frunze. Retrieved from http://irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/ulib/item/0002073 [in Ukrainian].
11. Maintaining the Momentum of Decentralisation in Ukraine. (2018). Paris: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/countries/ukraine/maintaining-the-momentum-of-decentralisation-in-ukraine-9789264301436-en.htm [in Ukrainian].
12. Population оf Ukraine 2019: Demographic Yearbook (2020). State statistics service of Ukraine. Retrieved from http://ukrstat.gov.ua/druk/publicat/kat_u/2020/zb/10/zb_nas_2019.pdf [in Ukrainian].
13. Antipkin, Yu. G., Marushko, R. V., & Dudina, E. A. (2021). Evolyutsiia maliukovoi smertnosti v Ukraini [Evolution of infant mortality in Ukraine]. Suchasna pediatriya. Ukraina – Modern Pediatrics. Ukraine, 1 (113), 6–14. doi 10.15574/SP.2021.113.6 [in Ukrainian].
Abstract views: 13 PDF Downloads: 2